Mycosis is a disease caused by microscopic fungi. In medicine, dermatophytosis (shown as skin lesions) and onychomycosis (shown as damaged nails) are separate. In terms of prevalence, they are second only to purulent skin diseases. Mycosis of the feet is most commonly recorded. They develop due to the activation of humans, zoonotic diseases, or yeast-like fungi. This article introduces the main types and clinical manifestations of fungi on the feet, and points out their treatment methods.
Path of infection
Infections can occur through direct contact with sick people or animals, as well as through the use of objects contaminated with fungi.
Favorable factors that increase the risk of mycosis include:
- childhood. Children’s immune defenses are insufficient and their skin is thinner, which will speed up the rate of fungal infections.
- Nervous system dysfunction;
- Endocrine pathology;
- Decreased immunity;
- Chronic infectious diseases;
- Foot skin fungus is often diagnosed in people with poor blood circulation, overweight, bad habits and deformed feet;
- Increased sweating of the legs (wearing tight or poor-quality shoes, plant-induced dystonia or may be caused by genetic characteristics);
- The qualitative composition of sweat changes, leading to the excessive reproduction of fungi, and fungi usually continue to spread on human skin;
- Excessive dryness and cracking of the toes;
- Lack of personal hygiene.
Types of fungus on feet
In most cases, foot mycosis is caused by the following pathogens:
- Candida albicans-in 80% of people, this fungus continues to exist in the human body without causing this disease. Excessive reproduction in the context of reduced immunity leads to the development of candidiasis.
- Trichophyton Trichophyton is a fungus that often causes allergic diseases and causes severe burning and itching of the affected area;
- Trichophyton rubrum (Trichophyton rubrum)-Trichophyton rubrum (trichophyton rubrum)-causes foot trichophytosis, which is characterized in that the folds between the toes are primary lesions, and then the pathological process spreads to the skin of the soles of the feet;
- Trichophyton-First, the skin in the finger fold is affected, and then the fungus spreads to the entire foot.
Symptoms of fungus on feet
In the early stages of its development, the mycosis of the feet actually has no obvious clinical manifestations. Usually, interdigital folds are affected first. Subsequently, the fungus spreads to the side of the foot and other parts of the foot.
With fungal infections, the skin changes its appearance. It becomes denser, starts to shine and crack, and becomes overly dry. Accompanied by severe itching, pain and burning sensation. The affected area becomes inflamed and red. As the fungal disease progresses, air bubbles will appear on the skin. When they are infected with the bacterial flora, abscesses and ulcers develop. The patient reports pain and an unpleasant smell.
Depending on the form of mycosis, the affected skin is as follows:
- Scaly-Characterized by peeling between the toes and the heel and sides. Normally, there is no painful feeling, and the disease generally has the characteristics of disappearing.
- Hyperkeratosis-Through this form, the skin thickens and infiltrates. It is characterized by an increase in skin patterns and the appearance of mucosal peeling. The patient reported pain when walking, excessive dryness and tightness of the skin, and itching and beginning to crack.
- conspiracy-Deep damage to the skin is manifested in the finger folds. The affected area is pink and will crack and peel over time.
- Dyskinesia form-Characterized by the appearance of air bubbles that open and form an aggressive surface, the entire layer of the skin peels off, and the affected area continues to itch and swell. In this case, there may be general signs (for example, body temperature may increase).
How to identify the fungus on the feet?
If you find the main complaint of the patient and examine the affected area, you may suspect a fungal skin lesion. In order to prescribe the correct treatment, the pathogen must be identified. To do this, remove the skin scales from the affected area, treat them with a special solution and examine them under a microscope. It is worth noting that direct microscopic examination can be used to screen for fungal diseases, but this type of examination cannot identify the type of fungus. Therefore, culture studies are required for a more thorough diagnosis.
The pharmacological treatment of foot mycosis is based on the use of antifungal drugs. For topical application, usually formulations containing antifungal ingredients are used. Aniline dye, silver nitrate solution, boric acid, resorcinol solution can also be used for topical treatment. Don't forget the importance of adequate care for the affected foot (you need to wash your feet and change socks frequently). Also, please make sure to disinfect your shoes, sheets and bathroom.
In the case of no therapeutic effect or severe disease, oral antifungal drugs are also recommended. Usually, pulse therapy is used. It provides a week of medication, after which you should rest for 3 weeks and repeat the antifungal medication for 7 days. Only a doctor can determine the best treatment.
Since fungal diseases of the skin of the feet are often combined with fungal infections of the nails, it is recommended to use special varnishes, keratolytic creams and ointments.
It is worth remembering that the correct treatment of the foot in the early stages of fungal infection can produce rapid treatment results and avoid many complications. Therefore, when a fungal disease is suspected for the first time, you should seek medical attention immediately.