Diagnosis and treatment characteristics of subnail fungus

Nail fungus is an infectious disease called onychomycosis.

Cracks in the nail plate are caused by fungal skin fungi. It quickly penetrates deep into the nail, causing deformation, structural changes and gradual destruction.

Healthy nails without onychomycosis

Who is susceptible to infection?

The infection spreads from sick people to healthy people through direct contact. That is, it is enough to put on the shoes of the infected person or use their sanitary products.

Therefore, it is believedWomen are more prone to the appearance of fungus: They are the people who most often try on things in stores, exchange personal hygiene items and shoes. This also applies to children, especially when they are resting in the camp or when they often maintain close communication and contact in small groups.

The elderly are also prone to get sick.Due to weakened immunity and the body's ability to resist infection naturally declines. At-risk groups also include those who neglect personal hygiene and do not pay attention to the condition of their nails.

reference.In addition to public places, you can also get fungus at home. If an infected person is present in the home, the infection will spread quickly even if it comes into contact with the floor or carpet, to a greater extent-when using shared slippers or socks.

Cause of infection

Toenail fungus

Not everyone will be infected immediately.Nail fungus, because it first penetrates the skin of the foot and then the nail.

If a person has damaged the nail plate or the skin around the nail plate, this will happen faster and more frequently. In particular, the cause of rapid infection is a certain distance between the nail bed and the plate itself.

All causes of fungal nail infections can be divided into the following main categories:

  • Harmful production.Difficult working conditions often lead to the appearance or susceptibility of nail fungus. For example, miners and employees of companies engaged in metal processing are at risk. High humidity, temperature changes, dusty places, and harmful vapors form an environment conducive to the development of infections. In addition, workers in massage and spa salons who come into contact with infected persons on duty often face fungi.
  • InjuredThis includes both mechanical damage (especially untreated mechanical damage) and exposure to hazardous chemicals. For example, nails may be damaged by acid and come into contact with abrasive cleaners.
  • The physical characteristics of the body.For example, people who sweat a lot are often found to suffer from nail fungus, because a humid environment is an ideal place for nail fungus to develop and spread. In addition, if the nails have not developed properly from birth, or the feet have other congenital diseases, these are also the causes of infection.
  • Wearing uncomfortable or inferior shoes. . . This can lead to increased sweating, nail deformation or damage to the space around the nail.
  • Chronic or acquired disease.Pathological factors such as diabetes, endocrine system diseases, overweight and digestive system diseases promote the development of fungi. The existence of HIV infection stimulates the rapid infection and development of fungi.


In the appearance of fungi, uncontrolled or frequent use of antibacterial drugs is considered to be a rare factor. In addition, you should be aware that infections are usually found on wooden surfaces; it is almost impossible to remove fungi from such objects.

The first signs of mycosis under the nail plate of the leg

Spots on nails-a manifestation of onychomycosis

There are many common manifestations of nail plate infection:

  • Chipped nails and delamination;
  • Change the color and structure of nails;
  • Pain, exacerbated by the spread of infection;
  • Mild itching in the infected area;
  • The nail plate is discolored.

In addition, symptoms may vary depending on the type of disease. Therefore, there are five main types of fungi:

  • Positive nutrition. . . It is accompanied by the appearance of spots, mainly on the side of the nail, the color changes to white or yellow, while the thickness of the board remains unchanged.
  • Hypertrophy.The steel plate is thicker than 2 mm, the nail becomes dull, deformed and severely collapsed.
  • Shrinking. . . The board turned dark gray, began to disintegrate, and then gradually peeled off.
  • side. . . The yellow streak with dents runs along the plate. The color of the nails can range from blue to black.
  • Near end. . . The infection starts on the side of the skin folds, and the nails gradually turn white and collapse.

In the initial stage, it is difficult to identify the nail fungus because the appearance of the nail fungus starts with almost invisible gray stripes on the edge of the plate.

This is a sign of skin lesions on the feet, accompanied by cracks or blisters between the fingers, and slight itching. It is almost impossible to visually determine an infection-it can only be determined through laboratory tests.


Don’t think that fungus is just an aesthetic problem,The disease can lead to the development of many serious diseasesAffects various organs. These include, for example:

  • Erysipelas of lower limbs;
  • Swollen lymph nodes;
  • Dermatomycosis;
  • Elephantism
  • eczema;
  • Rapid development of inflammation due to ingrown nails;
  • Bacterial infections;
  • Aspergillosis.


The fungus can cause the nails to fall off completely, which can permanently damage the nail plate bed. This can cause serious foot problems and laxity.

What is the best treatment?

Toenails affected by fungus

If the disease isIn the early stages, it can be treated with topical drugs. . .

These funds come in many forms: sprays, solutions, creams, and ointments. In addition, folk remedies that can be easily prepared at home also have a positive effect.

If the disease has obvious signs and is neglected, then in order to eliminate the risk of spreading infection in the body, some complicated drugs can be prescribed. These include broad-spectrum antifungal drugs, which can quickly and completely destroy fungi.

Systemic drugs

In the later stages of the disease, the doctor prescribes a complex treatment plan, Including the use of topical and internal preparations. These include antifungal drugs in tablets.

They take it twice a day for 3-4 months. They have a long-lasting effect because they accumulate in the body and stay for 9 months. This can significantly reduce the risk of nail fungus recurrence.


Pregnant and lactating patients, as well as patients with liver, heart, and kidney function problems, are strictly prohibited from using systemic drugs. In addition, this funding is not compatible with other drugs. Before taking them, be sure to consult your doctor.

Topical preparations

If only one nail is affected and there is no time to spread, then topical medication can be used to remove the fungus.

Apply them to the affected nail twice a day for about a month. In general, there are practically no contraindications to such ointments and creams.

There are also products in the form of plasters and colorless varnishes. They are easy to use, but the active substance concentration in them is usually low. If there is no improvement within the specified period, the doctor may add complex therapies to the treatment.

Folk remedies

There are several effective ways to treat fungi. Usually they involve long-term use, not less than one month. But in the early stages, they can significantly reduce the manifestation of infection, and even eliminate the infection completely.

  • cream.It is made from 20 grams of minced garlic and the same amount of butter. The lumps should be thoroughly mixed daily and applied to the diseased nail every day, once a day, for a few minutes.
  • Take a bath.For her, you will need to brew very strong natural coffee. The harder the drink, the more effective the treatment must be. After immersing the affected nail in the cooling bathtub, do not stir the sediment and wait a few minutes. This process can be repeated several times a day.
  • ointment.It can be prepared with 30 grams of eucalyptus oil, 10 grams of honey, 100 grams of chopped cabbage leaves and 1 teaspoon of apple cider vinegar. Everything is completely mixed together and placed in an airtight container in a dark room for one day. Apply ointment once a day.

How to cure fungal diseases quickly

In order to make the treatment as fast and effective as possible, a comprehensive examination is necessary, which will determine the type of further treatment. It may be necessary to administer drugs with general effects.

It is recommended to remove the top layer of the nail, especially before applying topical products. Therefore, they will have the best effect. For example, hardware manicure or special chemicals can be used to accomplish this.

Don't interrupt treatment, Because only long-term use of drugs can achieve the desired effect. Regular hygiene procedures, including removing dead spots on the nail plate and salt baths, will help speed up recovery.

Ways to remove the affected nail plate

Removal of nail plates affected by onychomycosis

For late-stage infections, it is usually necessary to remove the diseased nails. For this, you can contact a surgeon or perform the operation yourself.

If surgery is performed, the doctor will act under local anesthesia,Operation is fast, But need a longer recovery period.

At home, after consulting a doctor, you can use a special ointment-keratin soluble. Please note that nail removal is only suitable for the following infection manifestations:

  • Damage more than 40% of the nail area;
  • Partial destruction of the nail plate;
  • Painful toenail growth
  • Nails are uncomfortable when wearing shoes and walking.

Doctors do not recommend complete removal of diseased nails, A small plate should be reserved. Over time, it will grow back and form healthy nails. Ointments for nail removal are usually provided in solid form.

To remove nails, steam it in hot soap and soda water, and use a nail file to remove loose parts of the plate. Then use a plaster to stick the area around the painful nail, and then apply the product to the infected area.

Seal the top with plaster and leave within the time specified in the ointment instructions. It usually takes 3-4 days. After that, steam the nails again with the help of a spatula or file, and remove the upper part of the plate. This process should be repeated several times until the nail is removed.

Differences in the handling of yeast and mold

Damaged nails with molds

Mold is extremely rare.And only after a comprehensive examination (including various tests) can it be diagnosed.

When a mold infection is detected, complex treatments are usually required, including local preparations and general contact methods.

In this case, systemic drugs must be strong and have an effect on mold. The duration of treatment can also be increased.


To prevent fungus, special attention should be paid to hygiene, especially changing socks more frequently, washing feet and not using ordinary soap or towels. When you need to visit the sauna or swimming pool, please wear your own rubber slippers and avoid direct contact with the floor or skin of others. At home, treat the nails with any antiseptic.

Avoid wearing tight shoes and clean the inside regularly, Ventilate and dry thoroughly. Otherwise, there will be an environment conducive to the development of infection. Maintain a healthy lifestyle: take vitamins, eliminate bad habits, and walk more. Therefore, it will be possible to strengthen the immune system, including resistance to fungal infections.

in conclusion

If nail fungus is found, consult a doctor immediately and start treatment. In the early stages, the infection can be stopped quickly to rule out complications. To minimize the risk of infection or recurrence, hygiene and overall health should be maintained.